English Summaries (04/2019)
Development of a classification for functional participatory roles enacted during computer-supported collaborative science learning
In a collaborative learning situation, the group, its members, and the learning environment are in active interaction with each other. Roles are a fundamental part of this complex entity. Roles have been used to promote high-quality collaborative learning through an assignment of fixed roles for students. This approach, however, neglects the spontaneous and dynamic nature of roles. The aim of the study was to develop a descriptive classification for functional participatory roles, which captures the dynamic nature of roles from social learning interaction taking place in a virtual collaborative science-learning environment, and to evaluate the reliability and usefulness of the classification in research of collaborative learning interaction. To reach these aims, a rigorous moment-by-moment proceeding video analysis was conducted, and data excerpts representing different functions of roles were utilized. Seventeen functional participatory roles were identified from the data that comprised upper secondary school students working face-to-face in small groups in a virtual collaborative science-learning environment. The analysis brought support for conceptualizing roles as spontaneous and dynamic and for the significance of functional participatory roles in research of collaborative learning.
Keywords: roles, video analysis, collaborative learning, science learning, virtual learning environment
Do intensified job demands endanger well-being at work? Analyzing linkages between profiles of intensified job demands and job burnout in teaching and research occupations
Work intensification has recently attracted interest as changes in working conditions are occurring continuously, in particular, through accelerated ICT use in working life. Increased intensity in psychosocial working conditions is characterized by a tightening work pace, increased workload, decision-making, and career planning, as well as increasing learning demands. These demands have recently been called intensified job demands and may pose new challenges for workers. However, the impact of intensified job demands on employee well-being is not yet known. Our aim was to identify latent profiles based on intensified job demands among teachers (N = 2,186) and professionals in science (N = 975). Furthermore, we investigated whether these profiles were associated with job burnout. We also investigated gender differences in these associations. The analytical methods used were latent profile analysis and covariance analysis. We found three distinct profiles in data sets: “strongly intensified work” (teachers 56 %, professionals in science 53 %), “moderately intensified work” (33 %, 35 %), and “little intensified work” (11 %, 12 %). Women had “strongly intensified work” more often than men. Respondents who belonged to the profile of “strongly intensified work” experienced higher job burnout among both sexes and samples. Our results show that intensified job demands in teaching and research form a risk for impaired occupational well-being. This study shows the potential risks of intensified job demands for employees.
Keywords: intensified job demands, job burnout, teachers, scientists, professors
The psychometric exploration of the Finnish CORE-10 in a university student sample
The 10-item version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-10) is a generic, short measure of psychological distress. The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the CORE-10 and establish clinical cut-off scores for psychological distress, anxiousness, and depressiveness among young university students. The sample consisted of Finnish university students (age under 35 years) and data was gathered using internet and paper surveys. The overall response rate was 31 percent (n = 3,110) and 65.2 percent (n = 1,932) of the respondents were women. Psychological distress was assessed using CORE-10 and GHQ-12. Depressiveness, anxiousness, and diagnosis for depression were assessed using separate questions. Screening properties of CORE-10 were assessed using ROC-analysis among those participants who had completed all 10 items of CORE-10 (n = 2,982). CORE-10 proved to be internally consistent and a reliable measurement of psychological distress. Among young Finnish adults the optimal CORE-10 cut-off score for psychological distress, as determined by the GHQ-12 cut-off score, and daily or nearly daily anxiousness was ≥ 10. Other suitable cut-off scores were ≥ 9 for psychological distress based on GHQ-12 and ≥ 11 for daily or nearly daily anxiousness. For those suffering from daily or nearly daily depressiveness the optimal cut-off score was ≥ 13. Overall, the Finnish CORE-10 showed good psychometric properties and is suitable for short and easy-to-use assessment of psychological distress.
Keywords: anxiety, CORE-10, GHQ-12, depression, psychological distress, psychometric properties