The calculation fluency from second to fourth grade and relations to reading fluency and naming speed
The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the development of calculation fluency from second to fourth grade and the relationship between reading fluency and naming speed. At the beginning of the study children (N = 43) were eight years old and their calculation and reading fluency was measured twice every school year, altogether eight times. Calculation fluency was measured by mental arithmetic and algorithmic computation tasks, with all tasks time-limited. Reading fluency was measured by text reading speed and word recognition. Children’s naming speed (RAN) was measured in the fourth grade. The differences between children in calculation fluency were stable during the research period, and calculation fluency was best predicted by previous calculation fluency. Reading fluency and naming speed had no direct effects on calculation fluency. There were significant effects between calculation and reading fluency, but no significant effects between calculation fluency and naming speed. The results show that monitoring of developmental process in calculation and reading fluency during early grades is important.