English Summaries (01/2016)
Attachment theory, caregiving and dementia: A review of the literature
Attachment theory has been widely used to further our understanding of close relationships throughout the life span. Within attachment theoretical literature there is a large body of research examining associations between adult attachment styles and caregiving. However, relatively little attention has been given to the role of attachment in clinical care settings. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the significance of attachment in dementia care, and dementia researchers have highlighted the particular significance of attachment for people with dementia. Dementia is characterized by experiences of loss, insecurity and separation, which are hypothesized to lead to an increase in attachment behavior in people with dementia. The way in which care staff are able to respond to such attachment needs is essential for high quality dementia care. Attachment theory suggests that caregivers’ ability to provide care, and respond to other people’s needs may be influenced by their own prior attachment experiences. Thus, attachment theory provides a potentially useful framework for studying caregiving in dementia. The current paper discusses the theoretical literature on adult attachment and caregiving and critically reviews relevant studies in the field of dementia. In addition, studies examining the role of attachment in other professional care settings will be discussed. Finally, clinical implications of the results will be reviewed.
Keywords: attachment, caregiving, dementia, dementia care
How work affects non-work and vice versa: Review of diary research conducted on daily interaction between work and other life domains
In this narrative literature review of 30 articles, we describe quantitative diary research that has been conducted on daily interaction between work and other life domains. Diary studies on this topic have increased enormously and developed methodologically along with technological innovations. We analyze the key contributions of these diary studies by drawing on two main theoretical frameworks: 1) experiences of conflict and enrichment, and 2) positive/negative spillover and crossover from work to home/family and from home/family to work. We find that in accordance with cross-sectional and longitudinal findings, daily experiences of conflict between work and family are connected with lowered well-being and enrichment with higher well-being. Moreover, the literature shows evidence of positive and negative spillover effects and of some crossover effects between family members. Gender, in turn, was shown to be a significant moderator between daily work-family experiences. We also analyzed the methodological aspects of the reviewed studies. A typical diary study was implemented over a short time period (5 to 7 days) with a small sample (n < 51) from whom data were collected at fixed time intervals using the paper-and-pencil technique. The main advantage of the diary method compared to other research methods is its ability to detect short-term micro-level changes and variation in daily experiences.
Keywords: work, family, home/non-work, diary method, daily interaction, interface, conflict, enrichment, spillover