English summaries (06/2014)
The circle of health behavior and its meaning for the content of life among young adults
In this research, the health behavior circle based on the procedural health concept and its relation to the content of life is tested among young adults. By using the circle of health behavior structured by the equation model the sense of self-efficacy, health behavior and the relationships of the content of health and life are tested among young adults who are an essential population group in health promotion.
The results emphasize the phase of young adult life in health promotion when the circle of health behavior can be formed and strengthened by itself. The unformed circle among the unemployed, the highly educated and those with a family shows a need to develop health promotion methods separately for several target groups. The results indicate that the content of health primarily has instrumental meaning for young adults in achieving life content.
Keywords:health behavior, self-efficacy, content of life, content of health, young adult, counseling of living habits
Science center exhibition, motivation and learning
Combining informal learning and formal education in open learning environments is assumed to be effective based on anecdotal evidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its effects on motivation and learning outcomes of children aged 12–13 years old on different competence levels. A total of 565 students participated in a mobile Heureka science center exhibition outside the biggest cities. A reasoning test, general motivation test and a knowledge test were administrated as pretests. One week after the exhibition the knowledge test was repeated and the students also filled in the situation motivation test. The exhibition visit increased knowledge regardless of students’ school achievement. It also produced a strong situational motivation effect. The boys performed better than the girls in the pretests but the exhibition visit helped girls to close the gap afterwards. The students with a higher intrinsic motivation level indicated by the Relatively Autonomous Index (RAI) received clearly higher scores in the knowledge tests.
Keywords: intrinsic motivation, situational motivation, science center, RAI – Relative Autonomy Index
Maladaptive perfectionism in adulthood
Research findings show that perfectionism constitutes a psychological dimension associated with psychiatric disorders. It includes both perfectionistic strivings for high standards and concerns over mistakes and failures. The construct can be divided into self-oriented (setting high standards for oneself), other-oriented (high standards for other people) and socially-prescribed perfectionism (assuming that others hold high standards for you). Unrealistically high strivings for perfection and excessive self-criticism may be risk factors for psychiatric disorders, such as eating disorders, anxiety and mood disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. In competitive sports and in work, maladaptive perfectionism tends to cause exhaustion. Early attachment relationships and beliefs (schemas) concerning oneself and other people are presumably important in the development of perfectionism. Parents’ demanding, critical and psychologically controlling attitudes seem to be related to perfectionism. In treating perfectionism, perfectionistic beliefs should be tackled. Also, societal and cultural factors have an influence on whether perfectionism is recognized as a risk or even a coveted trait.
Keywords: perfectionism, psychiatric disorders, attachment, schema