English summaries (03/2014)
Children’s stress regulation, behavioral characteristics and play behaviour in day care centres
The aim of this study was to find out whether the quality of learning environment and children’s stress regulation are related to children’s behavioral characteristics and play behavior. A total of 384 children aged from six to seven years participated in this study.
To examine the function of stress regulative system, five saliva samples were collected during a day. Consulting special education teachers and students evaluated quality of learning environment with Learning Environment Assessment. Parents evaluated children’s behavior by using Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and teachers evaluated play behavior with Preschool Play Behavior Scale.
The results revealed that the higher was the quality of learning environment, the lower were cortisol levels both in day care and in evenings at home. Quality differences were most distinctive in team planning and in classroom arrangements. High quality team planning was associated with low cortisol levels in every measurement point.
Atypical cortisol pattern was revealed in 27 % of children. These children displayed more sadness that the other children. The relationships between cortisol and play behavior were scarce. However, children with high scores in rough play tended to have high cortisol levels still in the evening.
Keywords:stress regulation, behavioral characteristics, play behaviour, learning environment, cortisol activity
Experiences from the field: Interned-based CBT intervention for Finnish gamblers
This review is based on two recently published articles on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) based virtual therapy for gamblers in Finland (Castrén, Pankakoski, Ladouceur, & Lahti, 2012; Castrén et al., 2013). The purpose of these two studies was to describe the participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and to investigate how the offered therapy worked in practice. 471 participants (325 males and 146 females) signed up for an 8-week virtual therapy program. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and gambling types were analyzed using t-tests and Chi Square tests. Regression modeling (Generalized Estimating Equations, GEE) was used to study changes in time. 64 % of the participants were pathological gamblers (PG’s), 14 % were problem gamblers and 10 % were at risk-level gamblers. 224 participants (48 %) completed the 8 weeks of therapy. After the therapy significant reductions were seen in gambling related problems, gambling urge, impaired control of gambling, alcohol consumption, negative social consequences caused by gambling, gambling related erroneous thoughts, and depression. Early onset age of gambling was found to be associated with greater amount of gambling related erroneous thoughts.
Keywords:problem gambling, intervention, CBT, internet, therapy, virtual support
Insecurely attached client in psychotherapy – A clinical case study
This clinical case study investigated an unusual way of interaction in psychotherapeutic treatment of an insecurely attached client. The client talked almost incessantly, and the therapist had a great difficulty in participating in the dialogue. The research aimed to 1) understand the client’s dominating way of interacting in psychotherapy and 2) describe the change in therapeutic interaction during the first year of therapy. Content analysis was used in data analysis and attachment theory was used as a theoretical basis for interpreting the results.
The results showed that the client’s contradictory way of asking and receiving help reflected her early attachment experiences and the confusing events which had happened during her previous therapies. Her way of dominating the conversation could be seen as a way of controlling the situation. The therapeutic interaction changed during the first year of therapy. This study lends support to a view, that it is necessary to take into account the client’s attachment system, especially when treating very anxious and insecure clients.
Keywords:attachment, psychotherapy relationship, working alliance, content analysis