English summaries (04/2013)
Structure and stability of motivation among young children
The purpose of this two-year longitudinal study was to validate a measure of children's motivational orientations, namely the Child Behavior and Motivation Rating Scale (CBeMo). Kindergarten and preschool teachers rated a total of 130 children's motivation at the age of 4, 5 and 6 years. We tested a theoretically-based structure of motivational orientations among young children, evaluated the stability of the obtained factor structure across three measurement waves, and analyzed gender differences in motivational orientations. The results based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that a three-factor model, including task orientation, task-avoidance orientation and social dependence orientation factors fit the data best. The longitudinal CFA indicated sufficient measurement invariance of the scale across three waves. Task orientation and task avoidance factors showed moderate stability from age 4 to age 6. The results also revealed that boys were rated as displaying significantly less task-oriented behaviors than girls in adult-guided crafts and activity settings.
Keywords: motivation, development, confirmatory factor analysis, early education
Student group counseling and its effectiveness: Case study
The purpose of the research was to develop a group counseling model applicable to students starting higher education, based on structural group counseling and a dialogical approach. This study assesses the individual effects of group counseling from the standpoint of students' agency. In this research the counseling group was carried out among first-year computer science students. Eleven male students and the researchers as group leaders took part in six group sessions. The main data consisted of theme interviews before the group first met and after the last group session and study register information 2.5 years after the group sessions. The research data was analyzed using dialogical sequence analysis (DSA). The research indicates that short-term group counseling can clarify self-perception and in this way create the conditions for developing agency. Group counseling benefitted the majority of the participants but some would have required long-term counseling and support. The results can be applied in designing group counseling and evaluating the effectiveness of group counseling.
Keywords: group counseling, university students, computer science, dialogical sequence analysis, the effects of counseling