English summaries (04/2011)
The associations of temperament traits with effort-reward imbalance
This study examined associations between work stress and temperament. Work stress was measured by effort–reward imbalance (ERI) and temperament was measured by the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R). The subjects were 609 women and 493 men derived from the population-based Young Finns Study. The association between work stress and temperament was examined using linear regression analysis. The results showed that a higher ERI was associated with a higher activity level (general), a higher activity level (sleep), lower rhythmicity (eating) and lower rhythmicity (sleeping). Higher flexibility and a higher mood were associated with a lower ERI. In addition, associations with effort and reward were found. There were no gender differences in the association between ERI and temperament traits. The results of the current study indicate that temperament is associated with work stress and imply that it is desirable to also take personal factors into consideration when work stress in examined.
Keywords: temperament, work stress, effort - reward imbalance, ERI, DOTS-R
Special characteristics of psychotherapy in sign language: A case study
Quite little is known regarding the special characteristics of psychotherapeutic interaction in any Sign Language. Native signers rarely provide services while therapy via interpreter seems to be emphasized. This case study examined interaction in psychotherapy in Finnish Sign Language (FinSL). The data of the study consisted of video recordings of a two-year-long psychotherapy in FinSL. The study showed many special characteristics of interaction, which could be seen as serving meaningful therapeutic functions. The psychotherapist, whose mother tongue was FinSL, modified her interaction, making possible the occurrence of these special characteristics and their formation into mediators within the therapeutic process. With the use of these mediators, the therapy enhanced the development of the client’s self-regulation and mentalization skills. This study brought forth some interesting questions for further study: do the special characteristics of interaction in FinSL, plentiful in this data, come forth also in other data in FinSL and what their possible therapeutic functions might be. It would also be interesting to examine interaction in psychotherapy data, where the client participant’s language and cultural background are different from those in this study.
Keywords: sign language, psychotherapy, interaction, mentalization
How to understand the mind: Development of mentalization and attachment
Mentalization is an ability to understand one’s own and others’ action through mental states like thoughts, wishes, beliefs and emotions. A caregiver’s early attachment experiences and the way he/she reflects them is associated with how flexibly and consistently he/she understands his/her own and the child’s inner world, differences between them, and the links between mental states and actions. Babies already tend to actively share their experiences with their caregiver. The caregiver’s ability to observe, contain and regulate the child’s mental states and ability to be playful creates a basis for the child to better understand how mental states and the outer world, imagination and reality are linked together.
Keywords: mentalization, reflective functioning, symbolization, attachment, parental mirroring, playfulness